Eric Allman <eric@CS.Berkeley.EDU>

		@(#)README	8.81 (Berkeley) 12/3/95

This document describes the sendmail configuration files being used
at Berkeley.  These use features in the new (R8) sendmail; they will
not work on other versions.

These configuration files are probably not as general as previous
versions, and don't handle as many of the weird cases automagically.
I was able to simplify by them for two reasons.  First, the network
has become more consistent -- for example, at this point, everyone
on the internet is supposed to be running a name server, so hacks to
handle NIC-registered hosts can go away.  Second, I assumed that a
subdomain would be running SMTP internally -- UUCP is presumed to be
a long-haul protocol.  I realize that this is not universal, but it
does describe the vast majority of sites with which I am familiar,
including those outside the US.

Of course, the downside of this is that if you do live in a weird
world, things are going to get weirder for you.  I'm sorry about that,
but at the time we at Berkeley had a problem, and it seemed like the
right thing to do.

This package requires a post-V7 version of m4; if you are running the
4.2bsd, SysV.2, or 7th Edition version, I suggest finding a friend with
a newer version.  You can m4-expand on their system, then run locally.
SunOS's /usr/5bin/m4 or BSD-Net/2's m4 both work.  GNU m4 version 1.1
also works.  Unfortunately, I'm told that the M4 on BSDI 1.0 doesn't
work -- you'll have to use a Net/2 or GNU version.

IF YOU DON'T HAVE A BERKELEY MAKE, don't despair!  Just run
"m4 ../m4/cf.m4 >" -- that should be all you need.
There is also a fairly crude (but functional) Makefile.dist that works
on the old version of make.

To get started, you may want to look at (for TCP-only
sites), (for UUCP-only sites), and (for
clusters of clients using a single mail host).  Others are versions
that we use at Berkeley, although not all are in current use.  For
example, ucbarpa has gone away, but I've left in because
it demonstrates some interesting techniques.

I'm not pretending that this README describes everything that these
configuration files can do; clever people can probably tweak them
to great effect.  But it should get you started.

***  BE SURE YOU CUSTOMIZE THESE FILES!  They have some		***
***  Berkeley-specific assumptions built in, such as the name	***
***  of our UUCP-relay.  You'll want to create your own domain	***
***  description, and use that in place of domain/Berkeley.m4.	***


Configuration files are contained in the subdirectory "cf", with a
suffix ".mc".  They must be run through "m4" to produce a ".cf" file.
You must pre-load "cf.m4":

	m4 ${CFDIR}/m4/cf.m4 >

where ${CFDIR} is the root of the cf directory and is the
name of your configuration file.  If you are running a version of M4
that understands the __file__ builtin (versions of GNU m4 >= 0.75 do
this, but the versions distributed with 4.4BSD and derivatives do not)
or the -I flag (ditto), then ${CFDIR} can be in an arbitrary directory.
For "traditional" versions, ${CFDIR} ***MUST*** be "..", or you MUST
use -D_CF_DIR_=/path/to/cf/dir/ -- note the trailing slash!  For example:

	m4 -D_CF_DIR_=${CFDIR}/ ${CFDIR}/m4/cf.m4 >

Let's examine a typical .mc file:

	# Copyright (c) 1983 Eric P. Allman
	# Copyright (c) 1988, 1993
	#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
	# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
	# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
	# are met:
	# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
	#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
	# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
	#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
	#    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
	#    distribution.
	# 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this
	#    software #    must display the following acknowledgement:
	#	This product includes software developed by the University of
	#	California, Berkeley and its contributors.
	# 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its
	#    contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
	#    from this software without specific prior written permission.

	#  This is a Berkeley-specific configuration file for HP-UX 9.x.
	#  It applies only the the Computer Science Division at Berkeley,
	#  and should not be used elsewhere.   It is provided on the sendmail
	#  distribution as a sample only.  To create your own configuration
	#  file, create an appropriate domain file in ../domain, change the
	#  `DOMAIN' macro below to reference that file, and copy the result
	#  to a name of your own choosing.

The divert(-1) will delete the crud in the resulting output file.
The copyright notice can be replace by whatever your lawyers require;
our lawyers require the one that I've included in my files.  A copyleft
is a copyright by another name.  The divert(0) restores regular output.

	VERSIONID(`<SCCS or RCS version id>')

VERSIONID is a macro that stuffs the version information into the
resulting file.  We use SCCS; you could use RCS, something else, or
omit it completely.  This is not the same as the version id included
in SMTP greeting messages -- this is defined in m4/version.m4.


You must specify an OSTYPE to properly configure things such as the
pathname of the help and status files, the flags needed for the local
mailer, and other important things.  If you omit it, you will get an
error when you try to build the configuration.  Look at the ostype
directory for the list of known operating system types.


This example is specific to the Computer Science Division at Berkeley.
You can use "DOMAIN(generic)" to get a sufficiently bland definition
that may well work for you, or you can create a customized domain
definition appropriate for your environment.


These describe the mailers used at the default CS site site.  The
local mailer is always included automatically.  Beware MAILER
declarations should always be last in the configuration file, and
MAILER(smtp) should always precede MAILER(uucp).

One word of warning:  M4 macros are expanded even in lines that appear
to be comments.  For example, if you have

	# See FEATURE(foo) above

it will not do what you expect, because the FEATURE(foo) will be
expanded.  This also applies to

	# And then define the $X macro to be the return address

because ``define'' is an M4 keyword.  If you want to use them, surround
them with directed quotes, `like this'.


You MUST define an operating system environment, or the configuration
file build will puke.  There are several environments available; look
at the "ostype" directory for the current list.  This macro changes
things like the location of the alias file and queue directory.  Some
of these files are identical to one another.

It is IMPERATIVE that the OSTYPE occur before any MAILER definitions.
In general, the OSTYPE macro should go immediately after any version
information, and MAILER definitions should always go last.

Operating system definitions are usually easy to write.  They may define
the following variables (everything defaults, so an ostype file may be
empty).  Unfortunately, the list of configuration-supported systems is
not as broad as the list of source-supported systems, since many of
the source contributors do not include corresponding ostype files.

ALIAS_FILE		[/etc/aliases] The location of the text version
			of the alias file(s).  It can be a comma-separated
			list of names (but be sure you quote values with
			commas in them -- for example, use
				define(`ALIAS_FILE', `a,b')
			to get "a" and "b" both listed as alias files;
			otherwise the define() primitive only sees "a").
HELP_FILE		[/usr/lib/sendmail.hf] The name of the file
			containing information printed in response to
			the SMTP HELP command.
QUEUE_DIR		[/var/spool/mqueue] The directory containing
			queue files.
STATUS_FILE		[/etc/] The file containing status
LOCAL_MAILER_PATH	[/bin/mail] The program used to deliver local mail.
LOCAL_MAILER_FLAGS	[rmn] The flags used by the local mailer.  The
			flags lsDFM are always included.
LOCAL_MAILER_ARGS	[mail -d $u] The arguments passed to deliver local
LOCAL_MAILER_MAX	[undefined] If defined, the maximum size of local
			mail that you are willing to accept.
LOCAL_MAILER_CHARSET	[undefined] If defined, messages containing 8-bit data
			that ARRIVE from an address that resolves to the
			local mailer and which are converted to MIME will be
			labelled with this character set.
LOCAL_SHELL_PATH	[/bin/sh] The shell used to deliver piped email.
LOCAL_SHELL_FLAGS	[eu] The flags used by the shell mailer.  The
			flags lsDFM are always included.
LOCAL_SHELL_ARGS	[sh -c $u] The arguments passed to deliver "prog"
LOCAL_SHELL_DIR		[$z:/] The directory search path in which the
			shell should run.
USENET_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/lib/news/inews] The name of the program
			used to submit news.
USENET_MAILER_FLAGS	[rlsDFMmn] The mailer flags for the usenet mailer.
USENET_MAILER_ARGS	[-m -h -n] The command line arguments for the
			usenet mailer.
USENET_MAILER_MAX	[100000] The maximum size of messages that will
			be accepted by the usenet mailer.
SMTP_MAILER_FLAGS	[undefined] Flags added to SMTP mailer.  Default
			flags are `mDFMUX' for all SMTP-based mailers; the
			"esmtp" mailer adds `a' and "smtp8" adds `8'.
SMTP_MAILER_MAX		[undefined] The maximum size of messages that will
			be transported using the smtp, smtp8, or esmtp
SMTP_MAILER_ARGS	[IPC $h] The arguments passed to the smtp mailer.
			About the only reason you would want to change this
			would be to change the default port.
ESMTP_MAILER_ARGS	[IPC $h] The arguments passed to the esmtp mailer.
SMTP8_MAILER_ARGS	[IPC $h] The arguments passed to the smtp8 mailer.
RELAY_MAILER_ARGS	[IPC $h] The arguments passed to the relay mailer.
SMTP_MAILER_CHARSET	[undefined] If defined, messages containing 8-bit data
			that ARRIVE from an address that resolves to one of
			the SMTP mailers and which are converted to MIME will
			be labelled with this character set.
UUCP_MAILER_FLAGS	[undefined] Flags added to UUCP mailer.  Default
			flags are `DFMhuU' (and `m' for uucp-new mailer,
			minus `U' for uucp-dom mailer).
UUCP_MAILER_ARGS	[uux - -r -z -a$g -gC $h!rmail ($u)] The arguments
			passed to the UUCP mailer.
UUCP_MAILER_MAX		[100000] The maximum size message accepted for
			transmission by the UUCP mailers.
UUCP_MAILER_CHARSET	[undefined] If defined, messages containing 8-bit data
			that ARRIVE from an address that resolves to one of
			the UUCP mailers and which are converted to MIME will
			be labelled with this character set.
FAX_MAILER_PATH		[/usr/local/lib/fax/mailfax] The program used to
			submit FAX messages.
FAX_MAILER_MAX		[100000] The maximum size message accepted for
			transmission by FAX.
POP_MAILER_PATH		[/usr/lib/mh/spop] The pathname of the POP mailer.
POP_MAILER_FLAGS	[Penu] Flags added to POP mailer.  Flags "lsDFM"
			are always added.
POP_MAILER_ARGS		[pop $u] The arguments passed to the POP mailer.
PROCMAIL_MAILER_FLAGS	[Shu] Flags added to Procmail mailer.  Flags
			``DFMmn'' are always set.
PROCMAIL_MAILER_ARGS	[procmail -m $h $f $u] The arguments passed to
			the Procmail mailer.
PROCMAIL_MAILER_MAX	[undefined] If set, the maximum size message that
			will be accepted by the procmail mailer.
MAIL11_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/etc/mail11] The path to the mail11 mailer.
MAIL11_MAILER_FLAGS	[nsFx] Flags for the mail11 mailer.
MAIL11_MAILER_ARGS	[mail11 $g $x $h $u] Arguments passed to the mail11
PH_MAILER_PATH		[/usr/local/etc/phquery] The path to the phquery
PH_MAILER_FLAGS		[ehmu] Flags for the phquery mailer.
PH_MAILER_ARGS		[phquery -- $u] -- arguments to the phquery mailer.
CYRUS_MAILER_FLAGS	[A5@] The flags used by the cyrus mailer.  The
			flags lsDFMnP are always included.
CYRUS_MAILER_PATH	[/usr/cyrus/bin/deliver] The progam used to deliver
			cyrus mail.
CYRUS_MAILER_ARGS	[deliver -e -m $h -- $u] The arguments passed
			to deliver cyrus mail.
CYRUS_BB_MAILER_FLAGS	[undefined] The flags used by the cyrusbb
			mailer. The flags lsDFMnP are always included.
CYRUS_BB_MAILER_ARGS	[deliver -e -m $u] The arguments passed
			to deliver cyrusbb mail.


You will probably want to collect domain-dependent defines into one
file, referenced by the DOMAIN macro.  For example, our Berkeley
domain file includes definitions for several internal distinguished

UUCP_RELAY	The host that will accept UUCP-addressed email.
		If not defined, all UUCP sites must be directly
BITNET_RELAY	The host that will accept BITNET-addressed email.
		If not defined, the .BITNET pseudo-domain won't work.
DECNET_RELAY	The host that will accept DECNET-addressed email.
		If not defined, the .DECNET pseudo-domain and addresses
		of the form node::user will not work.
FAX_RELAY	The host that will accept mail to the .FAX pseudo-domain.
		The "fax" mailer overrides this value.
LOCAL_RELAY	DEPRECATED.  The site that will handle unqualified
		names -- that is, names with out an @domain extension.
		If not set, they are assumed to belong on this machine.
		This allows you to have a central site to store a
		company- or department-wide alias database.  This
		only works at small sites, and only with some user
LUSER_RELAY	The site that will handle lusers -- that is, apparently
		local names that aren't local accounts or aliases.

Any of these can be either ``mailer:hostname'' (in which case the
mailer is the internal mailer name, such as ``uucp-new'' and the hostname
is the name of the host as appropriate for that mailer) or just a
``hostname'', in which case a default mailer type (usually ``relay'',
a variant on SMTP) is used.  WARNING: if you have a wildcard MX
record matching your domain, you probably want to define these to
have a trailing dot so that you won't get the mail diverted back
to yourself.

The domain file can also be used to define a domain name, if needed
(using "DD<domain>") and set certain site-wide features.  If all hosts
at your site masquerade behind one email name, you could also use

You do not have to define a domain -- in particular, if you are a
single machine sitting off somewhere, it is probably more work than
it's worth.  This is just a mechanism for combining "domain dependent
knowledge" into one place.


There are fewer mailers supported in this version than the previous
version, owing mostly to a simpler world.  As a general rule, put the
MAILER definitions last in your .mc file, and always put MAILER(smtp)
before MAILER(uucp) -- several features and definitions will modify
the definition of mailers, and the smtp mailer modifies the UUCP

local		The local and prog mailers.  You will almost always
		need these; the only exception is if you relay ALL
		your mail to another site.  This mailer is included

smtp		The Simple Mail Transport Protocol mailer.  This does
		not hide hosts behind a gateway or another other
		such hack; it assumes a world where everyone is
		running the name server.  This file actually defines
		four mailers: "smtp" for regular (old-style) SMTP to
		other servers, "esmtp" for extended SMTP to other
		servers, "smtp8" to do SMTP to other servers without
		converting 8-bit data to MIME (essentially, this is
		your statement that you know the other end is 8-bit
		clean even if it doesn't say so), and "relay" for
		transmission to our RELAY_HOST, LUSER_RELAY, or

uucp		The Unix-to-Unix Copy Program mailer.  Actually, this
		defines two mailers, "uucp-old" (a.k.a. "uucp") and
		"uucp-new" (a.k.a. "suucp").  The latter is for when you
		know that the UUCP mailer at the other end can handle
		multiple recipients in one transfer.  If the smtp mailer
		is also included in your configuration, two other mailers
		("uucp-dom" and "uucp-uudom") are also defined [warning:
		you MUST specify MAILER(smtp) before MAILER(uucp)].  When you
		include the uucp mailer, sendmail looks for all names in
		the $=U class and sends them to the uucp-old mailer; all
		names in the $=Y class are sent to uucp-new; and all
		names in the $=Z class are sent to uucp-uudom.  Note that
		this is a function of what version of rmail runs on
		the receiving end, and hence may be out of your control.
		See the section below describing UUCP mailers in more

usenet		Usenet (network news) delivery.  If this is specified,
		an extra rule is added to ruleset 0 that forwards all
		local email for users named ``group.usenet'' to the
		``inews'' program.  Note that this works for all groups,
		and may be considered a security problem.

fax		Facsimile transmission.  This is experimental and based
		on Sam Leffler's FlexFAX software.  For more information,
		see below.

pop		Post Office Protocol.

procmail	An interface to procmail (does not come with sendmail).
		This is designed to be used in mailertables.  For example,
		a common question is "how do I forward all mail for a given
		domain to a single person?".  If you have this mailer
		defined, you could set up a mailertable reading:	procmail:/etc/procmailrcs/

		with the file /etc/procmailrcs/ reading:

			:0	# forward mail for
			! -oi -f $1

		This would arrange for (anything) to be sent
		to  Within the procmail script, $1 is
		the name of the sender and $2 is the name of the recipient.
		If you use this with FEATURE(local_procmail), the FEATURE
		should be listed first.

mail11		The DECnet mail11 mailer, useful only if you have the mail11
		program from (and
		DECnet, of course).  This is for Phase IV DECnet support;
		if you have Phase V at your site you may have additional

phquery		The phquery program.  This is somewhat counterintuitively
		referenced as the "ph" mailer internally.  It can be used
		to do CCSO name server lookups.  The phquery program, which
		this mailer uses, is distributed with the ph client.

cyrus		The cyrus and cyrusbb mailers.  The cyrus mailer delivers to
		a local cyrus user.  this mailer can make use of the
		"" syntax; it will deliver the mail to
		the user's "detail" mailbox if the mailbox's ACL permits.
		The cyrusbb mailer delivers to a system-wide cyrus mailbox
		if the mailbox's ACL permits.

The local mailer accepts addresses of the form "user+detail", where
the "+detail" is not used for mailbox matching but is available
to certain local mail programs (in particular, see FEATURE(local_procmail)).
For example, "eric", "eric+sendmail", and "eric+sww" all indicate
the same user, but additional arguments <null>, "sendmail", and "sww"
may be provided for use in sorting mail.


Special features can be requested using the "FEATURE" macro.  For
example, the .mc line:


tells sendmail that you want to have it read an /etc/
file to get values for class $=w.  The FEATURE may contain a single
optional parameter -- for example:

	FEATURE(mailertable, dbm /usr/lib/mailertable)

Available features are:

use_cw_file	Read the file /etc/ file to get alternate
		names for this host.  This might be used if you were
		on a host that MXed for a dynamic set of other
		hosts.  If the set is static, just including the line
		"Cw<name1> <name2> ..." is probably superior.
		The actual filename can be overridden by redefining

use_ct_file	Read the file /etc/sendmail.ct file to get the names
		of users that will be ``trusted'', that is, able to
		set their envelope from address using -f without
		generating a warning message.
		The actual filename can be overridden by redefining

redirect	Reject all mail addressed to "address.REDIRECT" with
		a ``551 User not local; please try <address>'' message.
		If this is set, you can alias people who have left
		to their new address with ".REDIRECT" appended.

nouucp		Don't do anything special with UUCP addresses at all.

nocanonify	Don't pass addresses to $[ ... $] for canonification.
		This would generally only be used by sites that only
		act as mail gateways or which have user agents that do
		full canonification themselves.  You may also want to
		use "define(`confBIND_OPTS',`-DNSRCH -DEFNAMES')" to
		turn off the usual resolver options that do a similar

stickyhost	If set, email sent to "" are marked
		as "sticky" -- that is, the local addresses aren't
		matched against UDB and don't go through ruleset 5.
		This is used if you want a set up where "user" is
		not necessarily the same as "", e.g.,
		to make a distinct domain-wide namespace.  Prior to
		8.7 this was the default, and notsticky was used to
		turn this off.

mailertable	Include a "mailer table" which can be used to override
		routing for particular domains.  The argument of the
		FEATURE may be the key definition.  If none is specified,
		the definition used is:
			hash -o /etc/mailertable
		Keys in this database are fully qualified domain names
		or partial domains preceded by a dot -- for example,
		"vangogh.CS.Berkeley.EDU" or ".CS.Berkeley.EDU".
		Values must be of the form:
		where "mailer" is the internal mailer name, and "domain"
		is where to send the message.  These maps are not
		reflected into the message header.

domaintable	Include a "domain table" which can be used to provide
		domain name mapping.  Use of this should really be
		limited to your own domains.  It may be useful if you
		change names (e.g., your company changes names from to  The argument of the
		FEATURE may be the key definition.  If none is specified,
		the definition used is:
			hash -o /etc/domaintable
		The key in this table is the domain name; the value is
		the new (fully qualified) domain.  Anything in the
		domaintable is reflected into headers; that is, this
		is done in ruleset 3.

bitdomain	Look up bitnet hosts in a table to try to turn them into
		internet addresses.  The table can be built using the
		bitdomain program contributed by John Gardiner Myers.
		The argument of the FEATURE may be the key definition; if
		none is specified, the definition used is:
			hash -o /etc/bitdomain.db
		Keys are the bitnet hostname; values are the corresponding
		internet hostname.

uucpdomain	Similar feature for UUCP hosts.  The default map definition
			hash -o /etc/uudomain.db
		At the moment there is no automagic tool to build this

		Include the local host domain even on locally delivered
		mail.  Normally it is not added unless it is already

allmasquerade	If masquerading is enabled (using MASQUERADE_AS), this
		feature will cause recipient addresses to also masquerade
		as being from the masquerade host.  Normally they get
		the local hostname.  Although this may be right for
		ordinary users, it can break local aliases.  For example,
		if you send to "localalias", the originating sendmail will
		find that alias and send to all members, but send the
		message with "To: localalias@masqueradehost".  Since that
		alias likely does not exist, replies will fail.  Use this
		feature ONLY if you can guarantee that the ENTIRE
		namespace on your masquerade host supersets all the
		local entries.

nodns		We aren't running DNS at our site (for example,
		we are UUCP-only connected).  It's hard to consider
		this a "feature", but hey, it had to go somewhere.

nullclient	This is a special case -- it creates a stripped down
		configuration file containing nothing but support for
		forwarding all mail to a central hub via a local
		SMTP-based network.  The argument is the name of that
		The only other feature that should be used in conjunction
		with this one is "nocanonify" (this causes addresses to
		be sent unqualified via the SMTP connection; normally
		they are qualifed with the masquerade name, which
		defaults to the name of the hub machine).  No mailers
		should be defined.  No aliasing or forwarding is done.

local_procmail	Use procmail as the local mailer.  This mailer can
		make use of the "" syntax;
		normally the +indicator is just tossed, but by default
		it is passed as the -a argument to procmail.  The
		argument to this feature is the pathname of procmail,
		which defaults to /usr/local/bin/procmail.

bestmx_is_local	Accept mail as though locally addressed for any host that
		lists us as the best possible MX record.  This generates
		additional DNS traffic, but should be OK for low to
		medium traffic hosts.  THIS FEATURE IS FUNDAMENTALLY
		a wildcard MX record that matches your domain, you
		cannot use this feature.

smrsh		Use the SendMail Restricted SHell (smrsh) provided
		with the distribution instead of /bin/sh for mailing
		to programs.  This improves the ability of the local
		system administrator to control what gets run via
		e-mail.  If an argument is provided it is used as the
		pathname to smrsh; otherwise, /usr/local/etc/smrsh is


Some things just can't be called features.  To make this clear,
they go in the hack subdirectory and are referenced using the HACK
macro.  These will tend to be site-dependent.  The release
includes the Berkeley-dependent "cssubdomain" hack (that makes
sendmail accept local names in either Berkeley.EDU or CS.Berkeley.EDU;
this is intended as a short-term aid while we move hosts into


    * This section is really obsolete, and is preserved	*
    * only for back compatibility.  You should plan on	*
    * using mailertables for new installations.	  In	*
    * particular, it doesn't work for the newer forms	*
    * of UUCP mailers, such as uucp-uudom.		*

Complex sites will need more local configuration information, such as
lists of UUCP hosts they speak with directly.  This can get a bit more
tricky.  For an example of a "complex" site, see cf/

If your host is known by several different names, you need to augment
the $=w class.  This is a list of names by which you are known, and
anything sent to an address using a host name in this list will be
treated as local mail.  You can do this in two ways: either create
the file /etc/ containing a list of your aliases (one per
line), and use ``FEATURE(use_cw_file)'' in the .mc file, or add the


at the end of that file.  See the ``'' file for an example.
Be sure you use the fully-qualified name of the host, rather than a
short name.

The SITECONFIG macro allows you to indirectly reference site-dependent
configuration information stored in the siteconfig subdirectory.  For
example, the line

	SITECONFIG(uucp.ucbvax, ucbvax, U)

reads the file uucp.ucbvax for local connection information.  The
second parameter is the local name (in this case just "ucbvax" since
it is locally connected, and hence a UUCP hostname).  The third
parameter is the name of both a macro to store the local name (in
this case, $U) and the name of the class (e.g., $=U) in which to store
the host information read from the file.  Another SITECONFIG line reads

	SITECONFIG(uucp.ucbarpa, ucbarpa.Berkeley.EDU, W)

This says that the file uucp.ucbarpa contains the list of UUCP sites
connected to ucbarpa.Berkeley.EDU.  The $=W class will be used to
store this list, and $W is defined to be ucbarpa.Berkeley.EDU, that
is, the name of the relay to which the hosts listed in uucp.ucbarpa
are connected.  [The machine ucbarpa is gone now, but I've left
this out-of-date configuration file around to demonstrate how you
might do this.]

Note that the case of SITECONFIG with a third parameter of ``U'' is
special; the second parameter is assumed to be the UUCP name of the
local site, rather than the name of a remote site, and the UUCP name
is entered into $=w (the list of local hostnames) as $U.UUCP.

The siteconfig file (e.g., siteconfig/uucp.ucbvax.m4) contains nothing
more than a sequence of SITE macros describing connectivity.  For

	SITE(sgi olympus)

The second example demonstrates that you can use two names on the
same line; these are usually aliases for the same host (or are at
least in the same company).


It's hard to get UUCP mailers right because of the extremely ad hoc
nature of UUCP addressing.  These config files are really designed
for domain-based addressing, even for UUCP sites.

There are four UUCP mailers available.  The choice of which one to
use is partly a matter of local preferences and what is running at
the other end of your UUCP connection.  Unlike good protocols that
define what will go over the wire, UUCP uses the policy that you
should do what is right for the other end; if they change, you have
to change.  This makes it hard to do the right thing, and discourages
people from updating their software.  In general, if you can avoid
UUCP, please do.

The major choice is whether to go for a domainized scheme or a
non-domainized scheme.  This depends entirely on what the other
end will recognize.  If at all possible, you should encourage the
other end to go to a domain-based system -- non-domainized addresses
don't work entirely properly.

The four mailers are:

    uucp-old (obsolete name: "uucp")
	This is the oldest, the worst (but the closest to UUCP) way of
	sending messages accros UUCP connections.  It does bangify
	everything and prepends $U (your UUCP name) to the sender's
	address (which can already be a bang path itself).  It can
	only send to one address at a time, so it spends a lot of
	time copying duplicates of messages.  Avoid this if at all

    uucp-new (obsolete name: "suucp")
	The same as above, except that it assumes that in one rmail
	command you can specify several recipients.  It still has a
	lot of other problems.

	This UUCP mailer keeps everything as domain addresses.
	Basically, it uses the SMTP mailer rewriting rules.  This mailer
	is only included if MAILER(smtp) is also specified.

	Unfortunately, a lot of UUCP mailer transport agents require
	bangified addresses in the envelope, although you can use
	domain-based addresses in the message header.  (The envelope
	shows up as the From_ line on UNIX mail.)  So....

	This is a cross between uucp-new (for the envelope addresses)
	and uucp-dom (for the header addresses).  It bangifies the
	envelope sender (From_ line in messages) without adding the
	local hostname, unless there is no host name on the address
	at all (e.g., "wolf") or the host component is a UUCP host name
	instead of a domain name ("somehost!wolf" instead of
	"some.dom.ain!wolf").  This is also included only if MAILER(smtp)
	is also specified.


We are on host (UUCP host name "grasp").  The
following summarizes the sender rewriting for various mailers.

Mailer          sender		rewriting in the envelope
------		------		-------------------------
uucp-{old,new}	wolf		grasp!wolf
uucp-dom	wolf
uucp-uudom	wolf!wolf

uucp-{old,new}	grasp!!wolf

uucp-{old,new}	somehost!wolf	grasp!somehost!wolf
uucp-dom	somehost!wolf	somehost!
uucp-uudom	somehost!wolf!somehost!wolf

If you are using one of the domainized UUCP mailers, you really want
to convert all UUCP addresses to domain format -- otherwise, it will
do it for you (and probably not the way you expected).  For example,
if you have the address foo!bar!baz (and you are not sending to foo),
the heuristics will add the or to
this address.  However, if you map foo to first, it
will not add the local hostname.  You can do this using the uucpdomain


For more complex configurations, you can define special rules.
The macro LOCAL_RULE_3 introduces rules that are used in canonicalizing
the names.  Any modifications made here are reflected in the header.

A common use is to convert old UUCP addreses to SMTP addresses using
the UUCPSMTP macro.  For example:


will cause addresses of the form "decvax!user" and "research!user"
to be converted to "" and ""

This could also be used to look up hosts in a database map:

	R$* < @ $+ > $*		$: $1 < @ $(hostmap $2 $) > $3

This map would be defined in the LOCAL_CONFIG portion, as shown below.

Similarly, LOCAL_RULE_0 can be used to introduce new parsing rules.
For example, new rules are needed to parse hostnames that you accept
via MX records.  For example, you might have:

	R$+ <@ host.dom.ain.>	$#uucp $@ cnmat $: $1 < @ host.dom.ain.>

You would use this if you had installed an MX record for cnmat.Berkeley.EDU
pointing at this host; this rule catches the message and forwards it on
using UUCP.

You can also tweak rulesets 1 and 2 using LOCAL_RULE_1 and LOCAL_RULE_2.
These rulesets are normally empty.

A similar macro is LOCAL_CONFIG.  This introduces lines added after the
boilerplate option setting but before rulesets, and can be used to
declare local database maps or whatever.  For example:

	Khostmap hash /etc/hostmap.db
	Kyplocal nis -m hosts.byname


You can have your host masquerade as another using


This causes outgoing SMTP mail to be labeled as coming from the
indicated domain, rather than $j.  One normally masquerades as one
of one's own subdomains (for example, it's unlikely that I would
choose to masquerade as an MIT site).

The masquerade name is not normally canonified, so it is important
that it be your One True Name, that is, fully qualified and not a

Normally the only addresses that are masqueraded are those that come
from this host (that is, are either unqualified or in $=w, the list
of local domain names).  You can augment this list using


The effect of this is that although mail to user@otherhost.domain
will not be delivered locally, any mail including any user@otherhost.domain
will, when relayed, be rewritten to have the MASQUERADE_AS address.
This can be a space-separated list of names.

If these names are in a file, you can use


to read the list of names from the indicated file.

Normally only header addresses are masqueraded.  If you want to
masquerade the envelope as well, use


There are always users that need to be "exposed" -- that is, their
internal site name should be displayed instead of the masquerade name.
Root is an example.  You can add users to this list using


This adds users to class E; you could also use something like


You can also arrange to relay all unqualified names (that is, names
without @host) to a relay host.  For example, if you have a central
email server, you might relay to that host so that users don't have
to have .forward files or aliases.  You can do this using

	define(`LOCAL_RELAY', mailer:hostname)

The ``mailer:'' can be omitted, in which case the mailer defaults to
"smtp".  There are some user names that you don't want relayed, perhaps
because of local aliases.  A common example is root, which may be
locally aliased.  You can add entries to this list using


This adds users to class L; you could also use something like


If you want all incoming mail sent to a centralized hub, as for a
shared /var/spool/mail scheme, use

	define(`MAIL_HUB', mailer:hostname)

Again, ``mailer:'' defaults to "smtp".  If you define both LOCAL_RELAY
and MAIL_HUB _AND_ you have FEATURE(stickyhost), unqualified names will
be sent to the LOCAL_RELAY and other local names will be sent to MAIL_HUB.
Names in $=L will be delivered locally, so you MUST have aliases or
.forward files for them.

For example, if are on machine mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU and you have
FEATURE(stickyhost), the following combinations of settings will have the
indicated effects:

email sent to....	eric			  eric@mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU

LOCAL_RELAY set to	mail.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  (delivered locally)
mail.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  (no local aliasing)	    (aliasing done)

MAIL_HUB set to		mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU
mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  (aliasing done)	    (aliasing done)

Both LOCAL_RELAY and	mail.CS.Berkeley.EDU	  mammoth.CS.Berkeley.EDU
MAIL_HUB set as above	  (no local aliasing)	    (aliasing done)

If you do not have FEATURE(stickyhost) set, then LOCAL_RELAY and
MAIL_HUB act identically, with MAIL_HUB taking precedence.

If you want all outgoing mail to go to a central relay site, define
SMART_HOST as well.  Briefly:

	LOCAL_RELAY applies to unqualifed names (e.g., "eric").
	MAIL_HUB applies to names qualified with the name of the
		local host (e.g., "eric@mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU").
	SMART_HOST applies to names qualified with other hosts.

However, beware that other relays (e.g., UUCP_RELAY, BITNET_RELAY,
DECNET_RELAY, and FAX_RELAY) take precedence over SMART_HOST, so if you
really want absolutely everything to go to a single central site you will
need to unset all the other relays -- or better yet, find or build a
minimal config file that does this.


These configuration files are designed primarily for use by SMTP-based
sites.  I don't pretend that they are well tuned for UUCP-only or
UUCP-primarily nodes (the latter is defined as a small local net
connected to the rest of the world via UUCP).  However, there is one
hook to handle some special cases.

You can define a ``smart host'' that understands a richer address syntax

	define(`SMART_HOST', mailer:hostname)

In this case, the ``mailer:'' defaults to "relay".  Any messages that
can't be handled using the usual UUCP rules are passed to this host.

If you are on a local SMTP-based net that connects to the outside
world via UUCP, you can use LOCAL_NET_CONFIG to add appropriate rules.
For example:

	define(`SMART_HOST', suucp:uunet)
	R$* < @ $* .$m. > $*	$#smtp $@ $2.$m. $: $1 < @ $2.$m. > $3

This will cause all names that end in your domain name ($m) via
SMTP; anything else will be sent via suucp (smart UUCP) to uunet.
If you have FEATURE(nocanonify), you may need to omit the dots after
the $m.  If you are running a local DNS inside your domain which is
not otherwise connected to the outside world, you probably want to

	R$* < @ $* . > $*	$#smtp $@ $2. $: $1 < @ $2. > $3

That is, send directly only to things you found in your DNS lookup;
anything else goes through SMART_HOST.

If you are not running DNS at all, it is important to use
FEATURE(nodns) to avoid having sendmail queue everything waiting
for the name server to come up.

| WHO AM I? |

Normally, the $j macro is automatically defined to be your fully
qualified domain name (FQDN).  Sendmail does this by getting your
host name using gethostname and then calling gethostbyname on the
result.  For example, in some environments gethostname returns
only the root of the host name (such as "foo"); gethostbyname is
supposed to return the FQDN ("").  In some (fairly rare)
cases, gethostbyname may fail to return the FQDN.  In this case
you MUST define confDOMAIN_NAME to be your fully qualified domain
name.  This is usually done using:
	define(`confDOMAIN_NAME', `$w.$m')dnl


To use FEATURE(mailertable), you will have to create an external
database containing the routing information for various domains.
For example, a mailertable file in text format might be:

	.my.domain	suucp:uuhost1

This should normally be stored in /etc/mailertable.  The actual
database version of the mailertable is built using:

	makemap hash /etc/mailertable.db < /etc/mailertable

The semantics are simple.  Any LHS entry that does not begin with
a dot matches the full host name indicated.  LHS entries beginning
with a dot match anything ending with that domain name -- that is,
they can be thought of as having a leading "*" wildcard.  Matching
is done in order of most-to-least qualified -- for example, even
though ".my.domain" is listed first in the above example, an entry
of "" will match the second entry since it is
more explicit.

The RHS should always be a "mailer:host" pair.  The mailer is the
configuration name of a mailer (that is, an `M' line in the file).  The "host" will be the hostname passed to
that mailer.  In domain-based matches (that is, those with leading
dots) the "%1" may be used to interpolate the wildcarded part of
the host name.  For example, the first line above sends everything
addressed to "" to that same host name, but using
the (presumably experimental) xnet mailer.

In some cases you may want to temporarily turn off MX records,
particularly on gateways.  For example, you may want to MX
everything in a domain to one machine that then forwards it
directly.  To do this, you might use the DNS configuration:

	*.domain.	IN	MX	0	relay.machine

and on relay.machine use the mailertable:

	.domain		smtp:[gateway.domain]

The [square brackets] turn off MX records for this host only.
If you didn't do this, the mailertable would use the MX record
again, which would give you an MX loop.


The user database was not originally intended for mapping full names
to login names (e.g., Eric.Allman => eric), but some people are using
it that way.  (I would recommend that you set up aliases for this
purpose instead -- since you can specify multiple alias files, this
is fairly easy.)  The intent was to locate the default maildrop at
a site, but allow you to override this by sending to a specific host.

If you decide to set up the user database in this fashion, it is
imperative that you not use FEATURE(stickyhost) -- otherwise,
e-mail sent to will be rejected.

To build the internal form of the user database, use:

	makemap btree /usr/data/base.db < /usr/data/base.txt

As a general rule, I am adamantly opposed to using full names as
e-mail addresses, since they are not in any sense unique.  For example,
the Unix software-development community has two Andy Tannenbaums,
at least two well-known Peter Deutsches, and at one time Bell Labs
had two Stephen R. Bournes with offices along the same hallway.
Which one will be forced to suffer the indignity of being
Stephen_R_Bourne_2?  The less famous of the two, or the one that
was hired later?

Finger should handle full names (and be fuzzy).  Mail should use
handles, and not be fuzzy.  [Not that I expect anyone to pay any
attention to my opinions.]


Plussed users
	Sometimes it is convenient to merge configuration on a
	centralized mail machine, for example, to forward all
	root mail to a mail server.  In this case it might be
	useful to be able to treat the root addresses as a class
	of addresses with subtle differences.  You can do this
	using plussed users.  For example, a client might include
	the alias:

		root:  root+client1@server

	On the server, this will match an alias for "root+client1".
	If that is not found, the alias "root+*" will be tried,
	then "root".


A lot of sendmail security comes down to you.  Sendmail 8 is much
more careful about checking for security problems than previous
versions, but there are some things that you still need to watch
for.  In particular:

* Make sure the aliases file isn't writable except by trusted
  system personnel.  This includes both the text and database

* Make sure that other files that sendmail reads, such as the
  mailertable, is only writable by trusted system personnel.

* The queue directory should not be world writable PARTICULARLY
  if your system allows "file giveaways" (that is, if a non-root
  user can chown any file they own to any other user).

* If your system allows file giveaways, DO NOT create a publically
  writable directory for forward files.  This will allow anyone
  to steal anyone else's e-mail.  Instead, create a script that
  copies the .forward file from users' home directories once a
  night (if you want the non-NFS-mounted forward directory).

* If your system allows file giveaways, you'll find that
  sendmail is much less trusting of :include: files -- in
  particular, you'll have to have /SENDMAIL/ANY/SHELL/ in
  /etc/shells before they will be trusted (that is, before
  files and programs listed in them will be honored).

In general, file giveaways are a mistake -- if you can turn them
off I recommend you do so.


Sam Leffler's FlexFAX software is still in beta test -- but he expects a
public version out "later this week" [as of 3/1/93].  The following
blurb is direct from Sam:

	$Header: /usr/people/sam/fax/RCS/HOWTO,v 1.14 93/05/24 11:42:16 sam Exp $

	How To Obtain This Software (in case all you get is this file)
	The source code is available for public ftp on			sgi/fax/v2.1.src.tar.Z

	You can also obtain inst'able images for Silicon Graphics machines from			sgi/fax/v2.1.inst.tar

	For example,
	    % ftp -n
	    ftp> user anonymous
	    ... <type in password>
	    ftp> cd sgi/fax
	    ftp> binary
	    ftp> get v2.1.src.tar.Z

	In general, the latest version of the 2.1 release of the software is
	always available as "v2.1.src.tar.Z" or "v2.1.inst.tar" in the ftp
	directory.  This file is a link to the appropriate released version (so
	don't waste your time retrieving the linked file as well!) Any files of
	the form v2.1.*.patch are shell scripts that can be used to patch older
	versions of the source code.  For example, the file v2.1.0.patch would
	contain patches to update v2.1.0.tar.Z.  (Note to beta testers: this is
	different than the naming conventions used during beta testing.) Patch
	files only work to go between consecutive versions, so if you are
	multiple versions behind the latest release, you will need to apply
	each patch file between your current version and the latest.

	Obtaining the Software by Electronic Mail
	Do not send me requests for the software; they will be ignored (without
	response).  If you cannot use FTP at all, there is a service called
	"ftpmail" available from  you can send e-mail to
	this machine and it will use FTP to retrieve files for you and send you
	the files back again via e-mail.  To find out more about the ftpmail
	service, send a message to "" whose body
	consists of the single line "help".

	Obtaining the Software Within Silicon Graphics
	Internal to Silicon Graphics there are inst'able images on the host
	flake.asd in the directory /usr/dist.  Thus you can do something like:

	    % inst -f

	to install the latest version of the software on your machine.

	What to do Once You've Retrieved Stuff
	The external distributions come in a compressed or uncompressed tar
	file.  To extract the source distribution:

	    % zcat v2.1.src.tar.Z | tar xf -

	(uncompress and extract individual files in current directory).  To
	unpack and install the client portion of the inst'able distribution:

	    % mkdir dist
	    % cd dist; tar xf ../v2.1.inst.tar; cd ..
	    % inst -f dist/flexfax
	    inst> go

	(Note, the dist subdirectory is because some versions of inst fail if
	the files are in the current directory.) Server binaries are also
	included in the inst'able images as flexfax.server.*.  They are not
	installed by default, so to get them also you need to do:

	    % inst -f flexfax
	    inst> install flexfax.server.*
	    inst> go

	The SGI binaries were built for Version 4.0.5H of the IRIX operating
	system.  They should work w/o problem on earlier versions of the
	system, but I have not fully tested this.  Also, note that to install a
	server on an SGI machine, you need to have installed the Display
	PostScript execution environment product (dps_eoe).  Otherwise, the fax
	server will not be able to convert PostScript to facsimile for

	If you are working from the source distribution, look at the file
	README in the top of the source tree.  If you are working from the inst
	images, the subsystem contains the README file and
	other useful pieces of information--the installed files are placed in
	the directory /usr/local/doc/flexfax).  Basically you will need to run
	the faxaddmodem script to setup and configure your fax modem.  Consult
	the README file and the manual page for faxaddmodem for information.

	FlexFAX Mail List
	A mailing list for users of this software is located on
	If you want to join this mailing list or have a list-related request
	such as getting your name removed from it, send a request to

	For example, to subscribe, send the line "subscribe flexfax" in
	the body of your message.  The line "help" will return a list of
	the commands understood by the mailing list management software.

	Submissions (including bug reports) should be directed to:

	When corresponding about this software please always specify what
	version you have, what system you're running on, and, if the problem is
	specific to your modem, identify the modem and firmware revision.


There are a large number of configuration options that don't normally
need to be changed.  However, if you feel you need to tweak them, you
can define the following M4 variables.  This list is shown in four
columns:  the name you define, the default value for that definition,
the option or macro that is affected (either Ox for an option or Dx
for a macro), and a brief description.  Greater detail of the semantics
can be found in the Installation and Operations Guide.

Some options are likely to be deprecated in future versions -- that is,
the option is only included to provide back-compatibility.  These are
marked with "*".

Remember that these options are M4 variables, and hence may need to
be quoted.  In particular, arguments with commas will usually have to
be ``double quoted, like this phrase'' to avoid having the comma
confuse things.  This is common for alias file definitions and for
the read timeout.

M4 Variable Name	Configuration	Description & [Default]
================	=============	=======================
confMAILER_NAME		$n macro	[MAILER-DAEMON] The sender name used
					for internally generated outgoing
confDOMAIN_NAME		$j macro	If defined, sets $j.  This should
					only be done if your system cannot
					determine your local domain name,
					and then it should be set to
					$w.Foo.COM, where Foo.COM is your
					domain name.
confCF_VERSION		$Z macro	If defined, this is appended to the
					configuration version name.
confFROM_HEADER		From:		[$?x$x <$g>$|$g$.] The format of an 
					internally generated From: address.
      [.$?_($?s$|from $.$_) $.by $j ($v/$Z)$?r with $r$. id $i$?u for $u$.; $b]
					The format of the Received: header
					in messages passed through this host.
					It is unwise to try to change this.
confCW_FILE		Fw class	[/etc/] Name of file used
					to get the local additions to the $=w
					(local host names) class.
confCT_FILE		Ft class	[/etc/sendmail.ct] Name of file used
					to get the local additions to the $=t
					(trusted users) class.
confTRUSTED_USERS	Ct class	[no default] Names of users to add to
					the list of trusted users.  This list
					always includes root, uucp, and daemon.
					See also FEATURE(use_ct_file).
confSMTP_MAILER		-		[smtp] The mailer name used when
					SMTP connectivity is required.
					One of "smtp", "smtp8", or "esmtp".
confUUCP_MAILER		-		[uucp-old] The mailer to be used by
					default for bang-format recipient
					addresses.  See also discussion of
					$=U, $=Y, and $=Z in the MAILER(uucp)
confLOCAL_MAILER	-		[local] The mailer name used when
					local connectivity is required.
					Almost always "local".
confRELAY_MAILER	-		[relay] The default mailer name used
					for relaying any mail (e.g., to a
					whatever).  This can reasonably be
					"uucp-new" if you are on a
					UUCP-connected site.
confSEVEN_BIT_INPUT	SevenBitInput	[False] Force input to seven bits?
confEIGHT_BIT_HANDLING	EightBitMode	[pass8] 8-bit data handling
confALIAS_WAIT		AliasWait	[10m] Time to wait for alias file
					rebuild until you get bored and
					decide that the apparently pending
					rebuild failed.
confMIN_FREE_BLOCKS	MinFreeBlocks	[100] Minimum number of free blocks on
					queue filesystem to accept SMTP mail.
					(Prior to 8.7 this was minfree/maxsize,
					where minfree was the number of free
					blocks and maxsize was the maximum
					message size.  Use confMAX_MESSAGE_SIZE
					for the second value now.)
confMAX_MESSAGE_SIZE	MaxMessageSize	[infinite] The maximum size of messages
					that will be accepted (in bytes).
confBLANK_SUB		BlankSub	[ ] Blank (space) substitution
confCON_EXPENSIVE	HoldExpensive	[False] Avoid connecting immediately
					to mailers marked expensive?
confCHECKPOINT_INTERVAL	CheckpointInterval
					[10] Checkpoint queue files every N
confDELIVERY_MODE	DeliveryMode	[background] Default delivery mode.
confAUTO_REBUILD	AutoRebuildAliases
					[False] Automatically rebuild alias
					file if needed.
confERROR_MODE		ErrorMode	[print] Error message mode.
confERROR_MESSAGE	ErrorHeader	[undefined] Error message header/file.
confSAVE_FROM_LINES	SafeFromLine	Save extra leading From_ lines.
confTEMP_FILE_MODE	TempFileMode	[0600] Temporary file mode.
confMATCH_GECOS		MatchGECOS	[True] Match GECOS field.
confMAX_HOP		MaxHopCount	[25] Maximum hop count.
confIGNORE_DOTS*	IgnoreDots	[False; always False in -bs or -bd mode]
					Ignore dot as terminator for incoming
confBIND_OPTS		ResolverOptions	[undefined] Default options for DNS
confMIME_FORMAT_ERRORS*	SendMimeErrors	[True] Send error messages as MIME-
					encapsulated messages per RFC 1344.
confFORWARD_PATH	ForwardPath	[$z/.forward.$w:$z/.forward]
					The colon-separated list of places to
					search for .forward files.  N.B.: see
					the Security Notes section.
confMCI_CACHE_SIZE	ConnectionCacheSize
					[2] Size of open connection cache.
confMCI_CACHE_TIMEOUT	ConnectionCacheTimeout
					[5m] Open connection cache timeout.
confUSE_ERRORS_TO*	UserErrorsTo	[False] Use the Errors-To: header to
					deliver error messages.  This should
					not be necessary because of general
					acceptance of the envelope/header
confLOG_LEVEL		LogLevel	[9] Log level.
confME_TOO		MeToo		[False] Include sender in group
confCHECK_ALIASES	CheckAliases	[False] Check RHS of aliases when
					running newaliases.  Since this does
					DNS lookups on every address, it can
					slow down the alias rebuild process
					considerably on large alias files.
confOLD_STYLE_HEADERS*	OldStyleHeaders	[True] Assume that headers without
					special chars are old style.
confDAEMON_OPTIONS	DaemonPortOptions
					[none] SMTP daemon options.
confPRIVACY_FLAGS	PrivacyOptions	[authwarnings] Privacy flags.
confCOPY_ERRORS_TO	PostmasterCopy	[undefined] Address for additional
					copies of all error messages.
confQUEUE_FACTOR	QueueFactor	[600000] Slope of queue-only function.
confDONT_PRUNE_ROUTES	DontPruneRoutes	[False] Don't prune down route-addr
					syntax addresses to the minimum
confSAFE_QUEUE*		SuperSafe	[True] Commit all messages to disk
					before forking.
confTO_INITIAL		Timeout.initial	[5m] The timeout waiting for a response
					on the initial connect.
confTO_HELO		Timeout.helo	[5m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to a HELO or EHLO command.
confTO_MAIL		Timeout.mail	[10m] The timeout waiting for a
					response to the MAIL command.
confTO_RCPT		Timeout.rcpt	[1h] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the RCPT command.
confTO_DATAINIT		Timeout.datainit
					[5m] The timeout waiting for a 354
					response from the DATA command.
confTO_DATABLOCK	Timeout.datablock
					[1h] The timeout waiting for a block
					during DATA phase.
confTO_DATAFINAL	Timeout.datafinal
					[1h] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the final "." that terminates a
confTO_RSET		Timeout.rset	[5m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the RSET command.
confTO_QUIT		Timeout.quit	[2m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to the QUIT command.
confTO_MISC		Timeout.misc	[2m] The timeout waiting for a response
					to other SMTP commands.
confTO_COMMAND		Timeout.command	[1h] In server SMTP, the timeout waiting
					for a command to be issued.
confTO_IDENT		Timeout.ident	[30s] The timeout waiting for a response
					to an IDENT query.
confTO_FILEOPEN		Timeout.fileopen
					[60s] The timeout waiting for a file
					(e.g., :include: file) to be opened.
confTO_QUEUERETURN	Timeout.queuereturn
					[5d] The timeout before a message is
					returned as undeliverable.
					[undefined] As above, for normal
					priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for urgent
					priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for non-urgent
					(low) priority messages.
confTO_QUEUEWARN	Timeout.queuewarn
					[4h] The timeout before a warning
					message is sent to the sender telling
					them that the message has been deferred.
confTO_QUEUEWARN_NORMAL	Timeout.queuewarn.normal
					[undefined] As above, for normal
					priority messages.
confTO_QUEUEWARN_URGENT	Timeout.queuewarn.urgent
					[undefined] As above, for urgent
					priority messages.
					[undefined] As above, for non-urgent
					(low) priority messages.
confTIME_ZONE		TimeZoneSpec	[USE_SYSTEM] Time zone info -- can be
					USE_SYSTEM to use the system's idea,
					USE_TZ to use the user's TZ envariable,
					or something else to force that value.
confDEF_USER_ID		DefaultUser	[1:1] Default user id.
confUSERDB_SPEC		UserDatabaseSpec
					[undefined] User database specification.
confFALLBACK_MX		FallbackMXhost	[undefined] Fallback MX host.
confTRY_NULL_MX_LIST	TryNullMXList	[False] If we are the best MX for a
					host and haven't made other
					arrangements, try connecting to the
					host directly; normally this would be
					a config error.
confQUEUE_LA		QueueLA		[8] Load average at which queue-only
					function kicks in.
confREFUSE_LA		RefuseLA	[12] Load average at which incoming
					SMTP connections are refused.
			RecipientFactor	[30000] Cost of each recipient.
confSEPARATE_PROC	ForkEachJob	[False] Run all deliveries in a separate
confWORK_CLASS_FACTOR	ClassFactor	[1800] Priority multiplier for class.
confWORK_TIME_FACTOR	RetryFactor	[90000] Cost of each delivery attempt.
confQUEUE_SORT_ORDER	QueueSortOrder	[Priority] Queue sort algorithm:
					Priority or Host.
confMIN_QUEUE_AGE	MinQueueAge	[0] The minimum amount of time a job
					must sit in the queue between queue
					runs.  This allows you to set the
					queue run interval low for better
					resposiveness without trying all
					jobs in each run.
confDEF_CHAR_SET	DefaultCharSet	[unknown-8bit] When converting
					unlabelled 8 bit input to MIME, the
					character set to use by default.
confSERVICE_SWITCH_FILE	ServiceSwitchFile
					[/etc/service.switch] The file to use
					for the service switch on systems that
					do not have a system-defined switch.
confHOSTS_FILE		HostsFile	[/etc/hosts] The file to use when doing
					"file" type access of hosts names.
confDIAL_DELAY		DialDelay	[0s] If a connection fails, wait this
					long and try again.  Zero means "don't
					retry".  This is to allow "dial on
					demand" connections to have enough time
					to complete a connection.
confNO_RCPT_ACTION	NoRecipientAction
					[none] What to do if there are no legal
					recipient fields (To:, Cc: or Bcc:)
					in the message.  Legal values can
					be "none" to just leave the
					nonconforming message as is, "add-to"
					to add a To: header with all the
					known recipients (which may expose
					blind recipients), "add-apparently-to"
					to do the same but use Apparently-To:
					instead of To:, "add-bcc" to add an
					empty Bcc: header, or
					"add-to-undisclosed" to add the header
					``To: undisclosed-recipients:;''.
confSAFE_FILE_ENV	SafeFileEnvironment
					[undefined] If set, sendmail will do a
					chroot() into this directory before
					writing files.
confCOLON_OK_IN_ADDR	ColonOkInAddr	[True unless Configuration Level > 6]
					If set, colons are treated as a regular
					character in addresses.  If not set,
					they are treated as the introducer to
					the RFC 822 "group" syntax.  Colons are
					handled properly in route-addrs.  This
					option defaults on for V5 and lower
					configuration files.
confMAX_QUEUE_RUN_SIZE	MaxQueueRunSize	[0] If set, limit the maximum size of
					any given queue run to this number of
					entries.  Essentially, this will stop
					reading the queue directory after this
					number of entries are reached; it does
					_not_ pick the highest priority jobs,
					so this should be as large as your
					system can tolerate.  If not set, there
					is no limit.
confDONT_EXPAND_CNAMES	DontExpandCnames
					[False] If set, $[ ... $] lookups that
					do DNS based lookups do not expand
					CNAME records.  This currently violates
					the published standards, but the IETF
					seems to be moving toward legalizing
					this.  For example, if "FTP.Foo.ORG"
					is a CNAME for "Cruft.Foo.ORG", then
					with this option set a lookup of
					"FTP" will return "FTP.Foo.ORG"; if
					clear it returns "Cruft.FOO.ORG".  N.B.
					you may not see any effect until your
					downstream neighbors stop doing CNAME
					lookups as well.
confFROM_LINE		UnixFromLine	[From $g  $d] The From_ line used
					when sending to files or programs.
confOPERATORS		OperatorChars	[.:%@!^/[]+] Address operator
confSMTP_LOGIN_MSG	SmtpGreetingMessage
					[$j Sendmail $v/$Z; $b]
					The initial (spontaneous) SMTP
					greeting message.  The word "ESMTP"
					will be inserted between the first and
					second words to convince other
					sendmails to try to speak ESMTP.
confDONT_INIT_GROUPS	DontInitGroups	[False] If set, the initgroups(3)
					routine will never be invoked.  You
					might want to do this if you are
					running NIS and you have a large group
					map, since this call does a sequential
					scan of the map; in a large site this
					can cause your ypserv to run
					essentially full time.  If you set
					this, agents run on behalf of users
					will only have their primary
					(/etc/passwd) group permissions.

See also the description of OSTYPE for some parameters that can be
tweaked (generally pathnames to mailers).


Within this directory are several subdirectories, to wit:

m4		General support routines.  These are typically
		very important and should not be changed without
		very careful consideration.

cf		The configuration files themselves.  They have
		".mc" suffixes, and must be run through m4 to
		become complete.  The resulting output should
		have a ".cf" suffix.

ostype		Definitions describing a particular operating
		system type.  These should always be referenced
		using the OSTYPE macro in the .mc file.  Examples
		include "bsd4.3", "bsd4.4", "sunos3.5", and

domain		Definitions describing a particular domain, referenced
		using the DOMAIN macro in the .mc file.  These are
		site dependent; for example, "CS.Berkeley.EDU.m4"
		describes hosts in the CS.Berkeley.EDU subdomain.

mailer		Descriptions of mailers.   These are referenced using
		the MAILER macro in the .mc file.

sh		Shell files used when building the .cf file from the
		.mc file in the cf subdirectory.

feature		These hold special orthogonal features that you might
		want to include.  They should be referenced using
		the FEATURE macro.

hack		Local hacks.  These can be referenced using the HACK
		macro.  They shouldn't be of more than voyeuristic
		interest outside the .Berkeley.EDU domain, but who knows?
		We've all got our own peccadillos.

siteconfig	Site configuration -- e.g., tables of locally connected
		UUCP sites.


The following sections detail usage of certain internal parts of the file.  Read them carefully if you are trying to modify
the current model.  If you find the above descriptions adequate, these
should be {boring, confusing, tedious, ridiculous} (pick one or more).

RULESETS (* means built in to sendmail)

   0 *	Parsing
   1 *	Sender rewriting
   2 *	Recipient rewriting
   3 *	Canonicalization
   4 *	Post cleanup
   5 *	Local address rewrite (after aliasing)
  1x	mailer rules (sender qualification)
  2x	mailer rules (recipient qualification)
  3x	mailer rules (sender header qualification)
  4x	mailer rules (recipient header qualification)
  5x	mailer subroutines (general)
  6x	mailer subroutines (general)
  7x	mailer subroutines (general)
  8x	reserved
  90	Mailertable host stripping
  96	Bottom half of Ruleset 3 (ruleset 6 in old sendmail)
  97	Hook for recursive ruleset 0 call (ruleset 7 in old sendmail)
  98	Local part of ruleset 0 (ruleset 8 in old sendmail)
  99	Guaranteed null (for debugging)


   0	local, prog	local and program mailers
   1	[e]smtp, relay	SMTP channel
   2	uucp-*		UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program
   3	netnews		Network News delivery
   4	fax		Sam Leffler's FlexFAX software
   5	mail11		DECnet mailer


   B	Bitnet Relay
   C	DECnet Relay
   D	The local domain -- usually not needed
   E	reserved for X.400 Relay
   F	FAX Relay
   H	mail Hub (for mail clusters)
   L	Luser Relay
   M	Masquerade (who I claim to be)
   R	Relay (for unqualified names)
   S	Smart Host
   U	my UUCP name (if I have a UUCP connection)
   V	UUCP Relay (class V hosts)
   W	UUCP Relay (class W hosts)
   X	UUCP Relay (class X hosts)
   Y	UUCP Relay (all other hosts)
   Z	Version number


   E	addresses that should not seem to come from $M
   F	hosts we forward for
   L	addresses that should not be forwarded to $R
   M	domains that should be mapped to $M
   O	operators that indicate network operations (cannot be in local names)
   P	top level pseudo-domains: BITNET, DECNET, FAX, UUCP, etc.
   U	locally connected UUCP hosts
   V	UUCP hosts connected to relay $V
   W	UUCP hosts connected to relay $W
   X	UUCP hosts connected to relay $X
   Y	locally connected smart UUCP hosts
   Z	locally connected domain-ized UUCP hosts
   .	the class containing only a dot


   1	Local host detection and resolution
   2	Local Ruleset 3 additions
   3	Local Ruleset 0 additions
   4	UUCP Ruleset 0 additions
   5	locally interpreted names (overrides $R)
   6	local configuration (at top of file)
   7	mailer definitions
   9	special local rulesets (1 and 2)

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Claus Aßmann Please send comments to: <>